ELLEN WHITE AND THE BRITISH MISSION
The Third European Council of Seventh-day Adventist Missions in Basel completed its work on Monday 28 September 1885. White was now free to spend the next twelve months visiting workers and members in Scandinavia and Central Europe. She would not return to the British Mission until the time of the Fourth European Council voted to be held in Grimsby, England, in September 1886.
White did not rest long after the Third European Council before responding to the invitation to visit the European field. On Tuesday 6 October 1985 she departed on a speaking tour of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, not arriving back in Basel, Switzerland, until Thursday 19 November.1
W. C. White, who had returned to America in time for the General Conference meetings of 1885 by way of Norway and England2 wrote with instructions that his mother was to rest before leaving on another tour.3 "Weary and worn" from her northern trip White indicated, "I would gladly have rested a few weeks in our home in Basel,"4 expressing that she had "never done as much work in the same amount of time as in the last four months."5 But she was needed in Northern Italy, in the Waldensean region of Torre Pellice where Czechowski had first started the work in Europe. She began the trip almost immediately on Thursday 26 November 1885. It was the day of her 58th birthday which she "celebrated in a way and place that I had little dreamed of." She was accompanied by her daughter-in-law Mary and Whitney.6 She did not return home to Basel until Thursday 21 December.7
Back home again White spent the winter in Switzerland taking appointments in Basel, Geneva, and Lausanne.8 Throughout January to March 1886 she settled into a routine of writing letters and other manuscripts. She also enjoyed the opportunity to take care of her apartment. She even purchased a horse and carriage to help in her travel to local speaking engagements.9 W. C. White and Louis Richard Conradi (1856-1939)10 came from America in the February, the latter to work in Russia from 28 June 1886.11
During this period White had time to think and judge the work of the Church's three foreign Missions in the Old World. She had seen for herself, first hand, the work and workers in Central Europe, Britain and Scandinavia. She had spent time with almost every worker in these Missions, certainly in England, Italy, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Norway. Now her talk of returning to America in May 1886, in time for the camp meeting season, has been forgotten. She wrote her son in America, "I can see no way to leave here until one year from now,"12 and she feels it necessary to make plans for further visiting in the Old World. There would be enough work to keep her busy for that year, including another visit to England in September 1886.
White left Basel for a second tour of Italy on Thursday 15 April 1886 accompanied by both her son and daughter-in-law. Before her return to Switzerland Monday 3 May she had spoken seven times.13 Two weeks later she began a tour of the Swiss churches,14 after which she and her party left to attend the Swedish Conference meetings and a second tour of Scandinavia Tuesday 15 June, meeting up with W. C. White in Hamburg, Germany. After the late June meetings in Sweden she visited Norway and Denmark, not returning home to Switzerland until 28 July.15 She stayed home again until Tuesday 14 September when she left for the Fourth European Missionary Council in Grimsby, England.16
On 26 May 1886, while visiting in Chaux-de-Fonds, White had written to William and Jenny Ings in California indicating her plans to start in two weeks for Sweden and Norway and then on to England.17 She had earlier indicated to them that she would like them both to come to Europe, and that she planned to be in England well in advance of the Fourth European Council planned for September of 1886, and "stay some time and labor in England." She really would like them to be with her, to work together with her in Britain:
Then if you come, Brother and Sister Ings, we purpose to have a family together and unite our interests and will have a comfortable home, convenient food, and try to help one another. I must spend considerable of my remaining stay in England, if I can endure the climate. If I cannot, shall go where I can but I am desirous to work in England. I long to speak without a translator. And if I spend much time in England, shall take my carriage with me.
One wonders whether these desires are in the purpose of God, or if they are merely an expression of personal desires resulting from nine months laboring in foreign countries, speaking through either an interpreter, or with those who spoke but little, good English. Mary White had been unable to spend much time with her, perhaps because of an expected baby, or because of developing tuberculosis. Her secretary was usually taking dictation, writing, or on the "calligraphy." Now she has reached the place when she needs the secure comfort of her own home, even if it is not in America, and the company of a close friend with whom she can converse in her own native tongue. The two women had been friends for many years. James White had written as early as January 1879 that they had received a letter from Jenny, living in Switzerland, written in her "usual clear and affectionate style" and "by the hand that has a hundred times ministered to our comfort."18 White is obviously lonely and perhaps would not have denied it:
I have left home and all its comfort and all its attraction. I consider the cause of God and its workings of greater consequence to me than anything that I possess. I will not worry about home, but just as soon as my work is done I shall go back willingly.
She makes one last, almost pathetic, human request for the Ings to come and be with her:
In my dreams I am with Sister Ings. She fell on my neck and said, "Oh, Sister White, I never wanted to leave you, and I want to be with you. The Lord blesses me when I am with you." I said, "Sister Ings, from this time our interests shall never be divorced. We will stand shoulder to shoulder to the close of time."
She struggles not to allow her own selfish desires to persuade the Ings: "If Brother Ings has the blessing of God, he may do a good work in England, and I wish he could spend some time there," but "my pleasure, my wishes, shall not come in to be a controlling power." She wants them both "to move understandingly and with a consciousness that the Lord is leading and guiding." She knows the Ings are hesitant about a long stay, one of more than a few weeks. They are hesitant about returning to the British Mission because of their work at the Health Retreat in California, and because Ings himself is not well and suffering from rheumatics, which he feels could be made worse in the damp climate of England. But White feels Jenny Ings has served the Retreat well and "now it is well that there should be change." She wants them to judge the situation, while at the same time placing them on the spot with what today might well be considered a little moral blackmail:
We would not urge your coming, but we do feel that it would be in the order of God for you both to visit Europe at this time. We cannot advise Brother Ings to come without his wife shall accompany him.(sic) He needs her and we will try to make up a family, for I cannot see any better way to do than to be independent of all families, cook as we please. We have a good girl in England and you will be free to ride with me, walk with me, and help me in many ways. Then when your husband is not well or when he shall rest, he can have a home to come to. If we do not stay in England long, still we will have a home where our interests will be connected. . . . I think you had both better come at once to England, and by the time you arrive we will be making our way from Norway to England. There we will meet, there we will talk over our plans. There are good locations we can obtain in England. We shall secure the most healthy place we can to make a home, and we want you to connect with us.
It would seem that White genuinely believes that the Ings can make a contribution to the work in Britain while she is there. However, they should not come "with the idea that you are to be fixed in England." It would be only for a time, to do a specific work, and then to return to California again "as soon as we will return to America."
White did not journey from Norway to Britain at the end of July as she obviously intended, but returned to Basel even though she must have had some idea that the Ings were leaving America for England. The Ings departed New York aboard the Cunard vessel Servia on 24 July 1886.19 Two weeks after her return to Switzerland White hears that the Ings have had "a favorable passage" to England, arriving 31 August20 and wishes that she was even now in England herself, instead of in Basel.21
During his 1885 visit to Grimsby W. C. White had come to believe that the Mission had "not yet done their best to present the truth in Grimsby" and suggested holding a tent meeting there.22 Obviously the Mission takes his advice for White now hears of a planned tent meeting in that city in conjunction with the Fourth European Council and plans to leave for England "one week or two before the council shall begin," at which time she would like to speak in the tent where she will not need an interpreter."23
White and her party left Basel on Tuesday 14 September 1886 by way of a not very comfortable train. The seats were "very hard," and "every bone in my body ached," she reported. One redeeming feature was the opportunity to talk in her own tongue with an English-speaking lady. The two hour channel crossing was also memorable, the boat being crowded and many people sick. Fortunately she was up-graded to a first-class compartment on the train to London but she was glad to arrive there the next afternoon, Wednesday 15 September. The party stayed overnight at the Great Northern Hotel where, after climbing seventy-three stairs, they found "a pleasant room, with excellent bed, and slept quite well."24
The following morning, Thursday 16 September, White departed for Grimsby at 5:15 A.M. by way of Peterborough and Boston, arriving at 10:38 A.M. She was met by the Ings whom she had not seen now for more than one year, and was glad to meet the Lanes again and find them "cheerful and happy." She awoke the following morning, Friday 17 September, with a sense of need for "the grace of Christ with me constantly." Certainly the long journey had been waring. She recorded in her diary, "Lord, give me physical strength. Lord, give me Thy wisdom. I need it so much."25 Ahead of her was the Fourth European Council and a series of speaking appointments.
A series of Pre-Council meetings were to be held in Grimsby just prior to the Fourth European Council scheduled to begin Monday 27 September. These began on Friday 17 September and were intended to conclude Friday 24 September, but continued over the next weekend. It would appear that these meetings were specifically conducted for the workers in the British Mission, and held in the meeting hall of the Grimsby office. Little is known concerning these meetings which were conducted in conjunction with a series of tent meetings in the city three evenings each week, and intended to continue on through the European Council meetings also.
White was present for these pre-Council meetings and spoke several times, covering such topics as "consecration, courage, and confidence."26 It is difficult in some cases to determine where exactly the available manuscript sermons were preached, for even those dated prior to the council give no indication whether she spoke at the pre-council or tent meetings. We do know that she spoke on her first Sabbath in Grimsby, 18 September, a day which opened "brightly," with a strong east wind, but no fog or clouds. She spoke twice in the day. The short talk at the early morning meeting, with about thirty people present, was on the Bible text "Draw nigh to God and He will draw nigh to you."27 On Sunday 19 September she spoke of the privilege of being a Christian, with the opening text from 1 Jn. 3:1-328
The reports of these meetings indicate that the workers were concerned regarding the difficulties "attending every branch of the work." Early one morning a group of individuals had gathered around the heating stove in the meeting hall and began to discuss experiences, and vent their frustrations:
Good halls for public services were very expensive. To the inexpensive halls the class of people they desired to reach would not come. Tents soon wore out in the damp climate. In their efforts to do house-to-house work, the doors of the best homes did not open to the Bible worker; and in the houses where the doors opened readily, minds were slow to comprehend the importance of obedience to unpopular truths. "What can be done?" was the inquiry.29
Encouragement for discouraged men was the order of the week. White agreed that "life is a conflict," but in trials and afflictions Jesus Christ "is right by our side." She reminded them that when the burden can be carried no longer "He says to us, ‘My yoke is easy, and My burden is light.'"30 Tuesday, 21 September, she spoke twice. In the morning it was on the resurrection at the second advent of Christ. In the evening on how the resurrection of Christ inspired the discouraged disciples.31 As well as seeking to encourage these men and women she also sought to remind them to "get hold of the pillars of your faith," and not forget that "the third angel's message is the all important point."32 The early morning meeting of Friday 24 September she spoke of "coming up to our high privilege" and making the most of present opportunities.33 In the evening of that Sabbath a meeting was held especially for the ministers including a few who had already come in from Europe and Scandinavia. They each gave testimonies.34
Some workers responded to White's endeavors to encourage them, showing faith and determination. Others, however, felt that she did not understand the difficulties of the fields and looked for indications on which to base their hopes of future success.35
We know she was the speaker in the tent on Sunday 26 September, where she reminded them of the words of Christ in Rev. 3:7,8, "I have set before Thee an open door, and no man can shut it." She spoke to the people on the subject of child rearing from her own personal experiences.36
Fourth European Council Meetings
The European Council meetings were convened in Mechanic's Hall, Grimsby, Sunday 26 September to Sunday 3 October 1886. They were first scheduled to commence on Friday 24 September but when the day arrived most of the workers from Europe and Scandinavia had not. Whitney had not, and he was chairman and "president" of the Council, and nor had the secretary.37 On Monday morning 27 September W. C. White and Durland acted in temporary capacities. W. C. White reminded his colleagues that just about 40 years earlier there were no more believers in the whole world than the number gathered in Grimsby, and sketched the development of the Church since that time. The rest of the day was taken by Lane who reported on the progress of the British Mission, including the progress of Present Truth and the advantages of lady canvassers. By the next day, Tuesday 28 September, the other delegates had arrived and work began in earnest, commencing with the appointment of the usual committees and reports from the various fields, except the Central European Mission.38 Although there were representatives from the other two Missions there were but a few compared to the previous year. The bulk of the attendees were from Britain and consisted of Lane, Wilcox, Durland, John, Ings, Drew, a number of canvassers and Bible-workers, and lay members from Grimsby and other parts of England.39
The worker's meetings which had been held during the previous week continued through the Council with instruction given on Bible subjects by means of Bible studies given by various ministers present. Preaching services were held every evening, probably in the tent, to which the public were invited. Speakers included J. G. Matteson, O. A. Olsen, John, Andrews, D. T. Bourdeau, Lane, and White. Attendance from the town was "quite large." White spoke at least twice on "practical religion and temperance." She also spoke at the morning meetings, using her experiences and long connection with the Church to give "force and power" to her words.40
At 10:30 A.M. on Tuesday the written reports of W. C. White, R. F. Andrews, D. T. Bourdeau, and John were read. In the afternoon there was a discussion of the publishing work of the British Mission resulting in an agreement to make books more saleable by revising them and adapting them to English readers. They would concentrate on a few good books in an effort to make book sales self-supporting. It was at this meeting that the first moves were made toward establishing a fully eqipped publishing house, permanently and centrally located. It was the general opinion that this should be in London "as soon as consistent." Consequently on Thursday 30 September they voted that in view of the fact that the publishing house in Grimsby "is attended with many inconveniences" and "not calculated to give character and permanence to the work," it be located "in London or vicinity," the religious publishing center of the British Empire.41 At the fourth and fifth business meetings conducted on Wednesday 29 September reports were read by Ings, Lane, Durland, and John.42
Another question carefully considered had to do with the preparation of publications. Four essential things were considered necessary; literature must teach "the truth of God," be presented in a simple style, easily understood, yet with dignity. The publications had to be "pleasing and attractive," and finally, should be inexpensive. It was voted to enlarge Present Truth to a 16 page paper from January 1887. Wilcox planned to put these resolves into practice in the British Mission within the coming year.43
Lane's British Mission report for the United Kingdom indicated three organized churches with 81 members and 41 "Sabbath-keepers" "not included in the organization," making a total of 122. They had baptized 18 persons during the year and 22 persons "embraced the truth." Tithes and donations amounted to $552.53. The worker force was now five ministers, four ship missionaries, and nine colporteurs.44
The small increase of only 22 believers in the British Mission was a cause for concern. Matteson, in his report of work in the Scandinavian countries, had indicated 10 churches in Sweden with 256 members amd a total of 327 Sabbath-keepers for two ministers and seven colporteurs. Denmark had nine churches with 177 members and a total of 299 Sabbath-keepers for four ministers and five colporteurs. Norway had three ministers and four colporteurs for three churches and 175 members and a total of 180 Sabbath-keepers.45
Following the 1885 European Council's decision to purchase tents for use in all three Missions, it was only natural that the subject would be discussed in Grimsby. Norway and Italy had had good success with their new tents, and they expected no problems in Denmark or Sweden. France had met with some difficulty in the controlling of "rabble." Again, it was the British Mission that had encountered the most difficult problems, even though there was still a feeling that tents could be put to good advantage. They had not had as successful a year as the one before, perhaps as a result of the political climate of a general election year. However some believed the expense of running a tent was no less than for the hire of a hall, however, others indicated that it could be used for an entire series of meetings, which was not always true with hired halls and tent attendance was generally larger. The novelty of a tent was also very good for publicity. The major problem was with deterioration due to damp weather and consequently some British workers disagreed regarding the lower expense of tents, when it was borne in mind that a tent lasted no longer than three or four years and made tent use more expensive than halls. What was more, people tended to take cold in tents. At the end of discussion the Council delegation again recommended the use of tents "wherever they seem to furnish the most successful method of advancing the truth."46
A great deal of time was given to the need for educating Bible workers and colporteurs to rightly represent the Church in "conduct and manner" and in their ability to teach "the truth of God" in a "proper manner." The Council reaffirmed its previous desire to hold regular training schools for such individuals, to be conducted by men of experience and held in places where it was possible to do missionary work while receiving instruction. In respect to such schools they requested expert help from America in the form of one or two experienced lady Bible workers.47 In the meantime it was proposed to established a city mission and training center in Liverpool. Here workers could learn something of both ship missionary work while also learning to canvass successfully in the city. This was to continue "as long as the British Mission board shall deem expedient."48
During the Council White was asked by one speaker what could be done to advance the work of the Mission, considering the barriers set up, and whether they could expect changes in the conditions under which they were presently struggling. She believed there would be changes that would open doors that were presently closed, changes that would alter conditions and arouse the minds of the people to understand and appreciate present truth. She spoke of political upheavals, changes in the industrial world, and of a great religious awakening that would prepare minds to listen to their special message of the third angel. But she emphasized that these changes were "nothing for you to wait for. Your work is to go forward, presenting the truth in its simplicity, holding up the light of truth before the people."49 Then she went on to explain that she had seen the matter in vision. Crisler records that she saw the multitudes to whom the message was sent as enveloped in mists and clouds and dense darkness. He wrote:
As in the vision she looked upon this scene with intense sorrow, her accompanying angel said, "Look ye," and as she looked again, there were to be seen little jets of light like stars shining dimly through the darkness. As she watched them, their light grew brighter, the number of lights increased, because each light kindled other lights. These lights would sometimes come together as if for the encouragement of one another; and again they would scatter out, each time going farther and lighting more lights. Thus the work went on until the whole world was illuminated with their brightness. In conclusion, she said: "‘Ye are the light of the world.' Matt. 5:14. Your work is to hold up the light to those around you. Hold it firmly. Hold it a little higher. Light other lights. Do not be discouraged if yours is not a great light."50
Sunday 3 October the Council voted Wilcox to attend the General Conference meetings in America in November and represent the British Mission. R. F. Andrews was voted to remain in Britain and labor in different places "where there now seems to be a good opening for the spread of the truth" and "as long as duty may demand,"51 but he would return home to America in time for the General Conference meetings in November.52 Sabbath 2 October was a day for recommitment and dedication.53
During the business sessions an official request was directed to the General Conference for Haskell to visit the European field with E. W. Farnsworth to accompany him. His services would be seen as "of great value to this field" because of his long experience in the work and especially in view of his recent work in the British Colonies over the past year.54 Lane later requested "any others the Conference may decide to send."55 A new European Council Executive Committee was appointed consisting of Whitney, Lane, O. A. Olsen, and Durland as Secretary. The British Mission Executive would consist of Lane, Wilcox, and Ings.56
The meetings ended after the 10:30 A.M. session on Sunday 3 October.57 Lane reported that the Council meetings were "excellent." He expressed his appreciation for the work of the Whites, and the "great amount of good" she had been able to bring about in the countries she had visited so far, considering she had "much strengthened the work in these mission fields."58 By 12 October the last Council representative had returned home. The Fifth European Council would be held in Christiana, Norway.59
General Conference Actions
At the November 1886 twenty-fifth annual meetings of the General Conference in America Wilcox, representing the British Mission, spoke in regard to the work in England, "showing its importance, the special difficulties it has to meet, and the extent and magnitude which the work must assume there in the near future." A written report from Lane concerning work in England was also read.60
The General Conference committee confirmed the requests of the Fourth European Missionary Council that Wilcox return to the British field, to continue work "in connection with our British paper and publications."61 Also that Haskell "visit the European field at his earliest convenience, to remain as long as he deems advisable, to assist especially by his counsels and labors in the British field."62 The same conference voted that Farnsworth join Haskell on this tour, but to remain in Michigan until such time as Haskell was ready to depart for Britain.63
The American leaders requested the Whites' return to American in time for the 1887 spring camp-meetings, adding a rider, or "whenever they feel that it is their duty to return."64
Ings was authorized an agent of the General Conference with the steamship lines "for reduced fare for our laborers who are called to cross the ocean."65 Obviously the number of Church representatives now making the journey to the European Missions had increased considerably since the early 1880's and warranted such negotiations with British owned companies.
Following the European Council at Grimsby Ings and his wife accompanied White on a visit to the churches in France, Italy and Switzerland, Jenny Ings going as a personal assistant to White. It was while on these travels that Ings wrote a series of articles for Review on the subject of personal witnessing.66 He was certainly one of the most experienced men in this field and he had obviously seen a need. They contained advice and direction that reflected his work in England and the articles were perhaps called forth as a result of listening to discussion in the Council he had just attended.
Departure from Grimsby
The Whites left Grimsby for London before the Council had concluded. W. C. White in company with Whitney had left before his mother, sometime during the last week. Friday 1 October White, in company with the Ings, left Grimsby on the 5:45 A.M. train. They had a compartment to themselves and enjoyed the "very pleasant five hours' ride." W. C. White met them at midday and they ate in a vegetarian restaurant, after which White did a little shopping before returning to the hotel for a rest. Meanwhile Ings met McEnterfer off the 9:00 A.M. train from Grimsby. That evening, while out walking with W. C. White, Whitney, the Ings, and McEnterfer, White decided to purchase blankets for the Mission in Basel.67
White slept well that night and arose on the Sabbath at 5:00 A.M. to write twelve pages of letters to send to America with Whitney, who was attending the General Conference meetings. It rained all day. The party left for Dover that evening in "the worst compartment for second-class we have had in all our travels." They had to change trains once before reaching the Dover harbor. They were met by "a heavy gale" and "waves running mountain high." While a small boy recovered Jenny Ing's hat the party made the decision to stay in a hotel that night and take a later crossing. White could not sleep due to rheumatic pains.68
The next day, Sunday 3 October, the 10:00 A.M. steamer took them across the "dreaded channel" to the Paris train. W. C. White was "very sick and made thorough work of throwing up," Ings looked pale, while the ladies lay on a sofa in the ladies cabin. Eventually the "tediously hard" seats of the French train brought them to Paris at 6:30 P.M. They would still have 24 hours more of train travel before reaching Nimes their final destination.69
It is interesting that White records the fact that Ings preached in Basel, Switzerland, on Sabbath 12 February 1887, and "the German portion of the congregation received a blessing, having an opportunity to hear the Bible truth in their own language." Ings appears to have been fluent in German, having perfected his abilities over the years of his marriage to Jenny.70
In France White visited Paris and the interests in Nimes and Valence, assisting and preaching in meetings as she traveled71 She went on to Italy again for a third visit to the Piedmont Valleys. She visited the churches in Lausanne and Bienne, Switzerland on her return journey to Basel, where she arrived Wednesday 24 November. She had now reached her 59th birthday, and Mary presented her with a new granddaughter, Mabel, on her return.72
Haskell did not leave America for Europe until just in time to attend the Fifth European Council of Seventh-day Adventist Missions in Norway, 14-21 June 1887, and Farnsworth never did arrive. White had counted on Haskell being in Europe in time for the Central European Conference meetings in Switzerland late 1886. She had planned for him and herself to be in England following these meetings and for them to work together there until June or July. Therefore, when Haskell wrote her outlining his plans not to come to Europe until April White wrote him, 14 January 1887, expressing a little more than her disappointment:
We had hoped you would be here at the conference and thought it would prove a blessing and then W. C. W. would accompany Brother Farnsworth and yourself to England and see what could be done there. Then when the way was prepared, I would spend one or two months in England. But as your plans are not to come till April, we shall not unite in the work in England. I am feeling quite sure that I should return to American and that I must be at my house in California at the end of the two years from the time I left California.
We did not propose to wait all the time while you were tarrying in America, so you may consider the promise annulled to do anything in England. We will therefore be on our way to America about, or near, the time you will be coming to England. We felt that we cannot be here any longer, so you must know the situation and consider me released from all promises made to work with you in England. Had you come on as we expected you would, and if the way was made ready, I would have consented to remain until June or July, but now we will make calculations to leave earlier.73
Perhaps Haskell did not have his heart and soul in the prospects confronting him in Britain and the rest of Europe. Things seemed much better in Australia where he had begun the work of a new mission, and the same General Conference committee that had voted him to Europe had also been presented with "an earnest petition" from Australia, signed by 83 persons, requesting a visit from him and from White and W. C. White.74 He seemed preoccupied with thoughts of this new mission and White suggested that he get his mind off Australia, she being afraid "it will not bring the blessings of God into your present labors."75
Perhaps Haskell's "tarrying" in America was not the only reason for White's desire to leave Europe, and she may even have been relieved at the change of plans. She had been "very sick with malaria" and had "suffered much" for three weeks before beginning to feel better. She considered that she "dare not be longer exposed to the scents that we have to receive in Switzerland, unless we see it our duty." The cause of her malaria and the bad smells, she believed, was due to houses with indoor water closets being "permeated with poison." If she could "obtain light to remain longer, I would do so," she said.76 This light did not come. Up to 23 May 1887 White sought to finish off her work in Basel, including her manuscripts and sermon editing with the intentions of returning to America.77 By 18 April 1887 she was still "straining every power to close up our work here in Basel."78
White, however, was to spend more time in Europe than anticipated. Now she would attend the Fifth Annual European Council of Seventh-day Adventist Missions to be held in Norway before visiting England and returning home. She would have appointments in Germany, meetings in Prussia with Conradi, and more visits in Sweden and Denmark.79 On Tuesday 23 May, with Jenny Ings as companion, White departed Basel for the last time en route for Norway, arriving 9 June at Jel Island, Moss, Norway.80 There she would meet up with Ings who had been in England, and with Haskell who had arrived in England from America at the end of May and in Norway 6 June 1887.81
The Fifth European Council of Seventh-day Adventist Missions was held in Moss, Norway, 14-21 June 1887, following "the first camp-meeting ever held in Europe, of which we have any knowledge."82 The campmeeting attracted much public attention for "the sect" when meetings were open to the public on Sunday with about 1500 attending, and with a favorable write-up in Morganposten the local newspaper.83
The European Council consisted of ten business sessions which concentrated in the main on Scandinavian problems. The British Mission was represented by Lane, Ings, and Durland. Officially representing America was Haskell, J. H. Waggoner, who had come to assist Whitney, and the two missionaries on their way to South Africa, D. A. Robinson and C. L. Boyd. The wives of the last two named had remained behind in England.84 Durland served in his capacity of Council Secretary.
The Council amended the constitution to allow for the provision of secretaries for each of the Mission boards, to be appointed at the time of the annual meetings of the Council. Consequently the executive committee of the British Mission would now consist of Haskell, Durland, Ings, with the new secretary being William Ambrose Spicer (1865-1952), a newcomer to the British Mission. Haskell was appointed as chairman of the European Council executive committee with Durland remaining secretary.85
Little information is really available concerning this Council despite the fact that in the opinion of W. C. White it was "the most harmonious, and profitable meeting" he had ever attended, and Matteson believed "we have never before in any council been so much encouraged, not seen so many fields open before us."86
The Council began as did others before it, with "interesting remarks" concerning "the progress and wants of the cause" in the different fields. White gave "a stirring address" concerning the duty of those engaged in the work of spreading the gospel in Europe.
There was much profitable discussion regarding the means for strengthening and broadening the work in all the countries represented by the three Missions and in South Africa.87 Certain laws governing many countries of Europe were seen to be less favorable than in Britain and America. Along with other representatives, Lane rendered his report concerning work in Britain, emphasizing good progress especially in the colporteur work. Matteson reported success with his colporteur schools of the previous year, where after three months of instruction, eighteen of those trained had been working in towns and villages with great success, and had also learned to write. White addressed herself to the "important matter" of giving men a thorough training for the ministry before giving them a license to preach. Such reports prompted plans to be laid and resolutions adopted. The Council again recognized the "great importance of extensively placing our publications before the reading public," and voted that both in England and Europe "files of our journals" be placed in libraries, reading rooms, and hotels, especially in the best hotels visited by tourists. A publishing committee was also appointed for each Mission. Haskell, Durland, and Lane were to constitute the committee for the British Mission.
Looking forward to the education and training of both ministers and colporteurs the Council voted for the development of schools in each conference for such a purpose. This commanded "enthusiastic attention." In the meanwhile each Mission agreed to hold a three-month long training school each year especially for literature evangelists. In an attempt to meet the better classes the Council also voted to encourage the selection of qualified individuals to attend the "best institutions of learning." They considered it "highly expedient" that such persons become familiar with the theories of those who opposed their teachings.88
Another matter of concern was the question of preparing and publishing suitable literature. The subject "called for the most anxious study."89 Consequently committees were appointed to select new books to be translated and published. English publications were to be revised to meet "the circumstances and wants" of European readers. An International Committee was also formed to make recommendations concerning books and journals for use in the three Missions, especially concerning the preparation of the book Thoughts on Daniel and the Revelation by Uriah Smith.
Plans were agreed on to establish a city mission in Hamburg, Germany. The Norwegians organized themselves into a separate conference.90
White's party left Moss on Sunday 19 June for Christiania and then on to Stockholm, Sweden.91 They arrived at Stockholm Thursday 23 June for conference meetings commencing the next day Friday 24 June at 10 A.M. They met in "the first tent that has been pitched in Sweden." Both White and Ings spoke during the meetings.92
After the Swedish Conference meetings White and her party left for England. Following a brief stop over in Copenhagen, Denmark, they travelled through Kiel and Hamburg, Germany, and a part of Holland. They crossed the English channel on the steamer Princess Elizabeth, boarding at 10 P.M. Wednesday 29 June.93.
White and her party arrived on British soil and took train to London at 6 A.M. Thursday 30 June. They ate a dry lunch they had prepared before leaving Denmark. This consisted of two pints of strawberries purchased in Copenhagen, and a cup of warm drink purchased on the way. The channel crossing had been smooth but the ladies had to sleep on a hard bunk, in spite of which White slept "quite well." In all they had "a pleasant voyage." A telegram from Lane, sent to Sweden, had informed them to go straight to Kettering on arrival in England,94 and this they did by way of London, arriving at 11:30 A.M. They were met by Durland and taken to his home at Hawthorne Road where White met Mrs. Durland and the family. She learned that those who had left Christiana before them had had a very rough passage on the Baltic Sea crossing.95
On arrival in Kettering the party telegraphed Robinson and Boyd in London informing them that they would meet them the following Monday 4 July. The next day, Friday 1 July, White spent shopping, purchasing shoes, and writing letters to her family. Lane arrived in Kettering at about 1:00 P.M. and W. C. White, who had intended to visit Basel, Switzerland, had changed his mind and arrived in Kettering just before sundown.96 Haskell also appears to have arrived in Kettering by Friday. He had come from Wales where he had visited with John, trying to persuade him to join Durland in a new tent series "about six miles from Kettering."97 This would have been at Wellingborough.
On Sabbath 2 July White spent the morning at the "good-sized hall" used by the Kettering membership. The carriage came to collect her and the others at 10:00 A.M. and conveyed her to her preaching engagement where she spoke to about fifty people "with much freedom of speaking," despite the intense heat generated by the "iron" walls of the church. White recorded in her diary that "the heat was very great" and that the sun "made it seem like an oven." She spoke from Heb. 12:1-4. She departed the morning service
. . . with deep and earnest yearning of heart for the dear people whom we had addressed. We knew that many must have a true conversion to God or they would not be able to keep the truth or to withstand temptation.98
When White returned to the church at 3:00 P.M. she chose to speak to a mixed congregation on Matt. 22: 11-14. For her this was "a most solemn subject" as she spoke of "the terrible fate of the ones who, when Jesus shall come to examine His guests, he shall find without the wedding garment on." Although many bore testimony following her sermon she felt that some were "in peril." As she reported:
Souls were undecided and I urged that those who were not fully on the Lord's side should make decisions that day should break the chains of the powers of Satan and be wholly the Lord's.99
One young husband and wife came forward. He was a building foreman and a drunkard, she a "proud, worldly-loving woman." White saw in them the needs of all who accept the Savior and the Church:
These souls I know needed Jesus, needed Him just then to help them, else they would never have strength to overcome the world and the perverted appetite, and to walk the path of humble obedience. We had a praying session for these souls and then invited them to speak freely and this would give them strength. We know that the Lord had been chastising them to bring them near to Him. Two lovely children had recently sickened and died which was a terrible blow to them and softened their hearts and awakened in them a desire to be different from what they were. Both bore testimony and with much simplicity and deep feeling told their determination, and we must leave them in the hands of God for Him to lead, for Him to guide. He will do this if they will only submit themselves to Him as to a faithful Creator. Oh what a terrible curse is intemperance!100
Her observations were made more poignant it being a shoe dealers general holiday in Kettering, and was "a general scene of drinking, carousing, and low, debasing influence."101
On Sunday 3 July W. C. White returned to London in the early morning but White stayed on to speak again at a 5:00 P.M. meeting, this time in a rented hall, and to both members and public. The hall was not much better for meetings than was the church and was "without proper ventilation, very uncomfortable and warm."102
At about 9 A.M. Monday, 4 July 1887 White and her party returned to London for a four day visit. That first day she visited again with the Robinsons and Boyds.103 On Tuesday she visited the house used by the lady Bible instructors who were trying to reach the higher class population of the city. She also visited with the Marsh family, especially with Mrs. Marsh who had been a Sabbath-keeper for a number of years. Mr. Marsh worked at and lived next door to the Holloway prison.104
That evening White spent saying farewell to the Robinson and Boyd families. They had "some plain talk about how the work should be commenced and carried forward in their new field," South Africa.105 It was perhaps at this time she handed them the letters she had written them after their departure from Moss, and perhaps discussed the contents of the joint letter with them.106 The next day Wednesday 6 July, after some shopping in London, she went to see the two families board their vessel for South Africa.107 They sailed on the Hascaden Castle.108 Interestingly Robinson had been with those who came to say good-bye to White when two years earlier she herself had boarded a vessel to take her to Europe.109 Now she was to see him off, not knowing what he and these other friends would be subject to in establishing the Church in a new field. As she wrote: "I returned from the boat with many sad impressions." That evening, Thursday 7 July, White was able to take time to talk with Haskell "upon many important matters connected with the work."110 The next day she traveled to Southampton.
Accompanied by the Ings, White arrived in Southampton Friday 8 July. They took dinner with Sis. S. Phipson and her mother at their apartment. Phipson was the local literature agent for the Mission at Southampton. Her mother suffered from "stones in kidneys and liver." Haskell arrived the same day in time to speak at an evening meeting in a hired hall. Sabbath White spoke in the afternoon to the membership of the Southampton church.111 It would appear Haskell spoke in the hall meetings Sunday morning 10 July but with "not many outsiders present." White spoke in the afternoon on Christ's words "Let not your heart be troubled" and there was "a much larger number out."112
Monday 11 July White and the Ings visited the Isle of Wight, specifically to spend time with Sargent the ship's captain whom she had previously met in Grimsby, and his "numerous little flock." Sargent, who lived close to the Solent, met them and rowed them in a boat across the bay to visit his home. The Sargents had kept the Sabbath now for five years and White considered them "children of God, keeping the Sabbath with all fidelity." Before returning to Southampton she visited Osborne House, a residence of the Queen of England.113
While in Southampton White met and conversed with a Sister Griffeth, who afterwards wrote her on a matter of concern to her. Whatever her need, White felt that "such cases must not be indifferently passed by," and consequently after returning to America wrote Jenny Ings that she "do something for her."114 Such concern was not uncommon in White.
From this point White's diary information becomes rather sketchy. For the last three weeks of her stay in England only a few details can be pieced together from her available letters. Writing to her children from Kettering, 30 June 1887, White indicated her intention of returning to the area, and in particular to Wellingborough where "there has been an earnest desire for me to speak to the people in this new place where the tent is to stand this summer or fall." She had been specific that it would be "the Sabbath after being in Southampton," and that she would "then go on to Grimsby to speak to them."115 That Sabbath would have been 16 July but in fact a sermon manuscript for Wellingborough bears the date of Thursday 14 July. She spoke from Titus 2:11-14 on the subject of "A Peculiar People," covering the subjects of the second coming of Jesus Christ, the resurrection, the granting of the kingdom to the saints, and a salvation that brings moral power to overcome temptation and bring us into obedience to the law by Christ's imputed righteousness.116 Whether she actually stayed on in Kettering and Wellingborough over 16 July we have no record. The following week she was certainly in Grimsby. No doubt staying again at the Mission headquarters facilities, which still remained in Grimsby, and with the Lanes.117 Perhaps she took time to rest after over seven weeks of what must have been exhausting travel throughout Europe, Scandinavia and England. On 20 July White wrote her son W. C. White and daughter-in-law Mary in London: "I am in good health, appetite good, strength good. We have the very best kind of living, and I am gaining strength."118 Perhaps these two weeks without travel were just what she needed before her departure from Liverpool for America.
White arrived in Liverpool at 11:00 A.M. Tuesday 2 August, where she was met by members of her family who had arrived earlier from Switzerland and London. Mary "was looking quite changed; poor, yet seems to be as well as I expected," she wrote Jenny Ings. The two grandchildren, Ella and Mabel, were well. W. C. White was now in Europe, at Basel, to complete work "that demanded his special attention." Earlier White had promised the Ings that they would return to America and California when she returned119, but Haskell was anxious for Ings to stay on in England and White considered it right that Jenny remain with her husband, at least until the time when W. C. White should return. So, for White, "it seemed not to be the will of God" that they return with her at this time. If Haskell was successful in getting a Brother and Sister McClure to come to England to ease the situation over workers then together the Ings could be released quite soon.120 Jenny stayed, contrary to her inclination.121
Daniel Bourdeau and his son had accompanied Mary White and her children to England. Although the party were to stay in a local hotel they were first taken to Drew's house at 12 The Woodlands, Clifton Park, Birkenhead, where White was able to visit with them "to my hearts content." She also found time to speak with a Mr. Smith who had come specifically to see her. Smith had been a minister of the Church of England but had left that ministry believing in the doctrine of immortality of the soul only through Jesus Christ, "in accordance with the Word of God." White sought to encourage Smith, this "honest Christian." That evening she talked more with those assembled, and did not get to bed until after 10.00 P.M..122
Before leaving Grimsby White had purchased a fur cape for her daughter-in-law, Mary, and found it to be "just what she wanted," but after arrival in Liverpool realized that she should have purchased other things both for Mary, the children, and for herself. Mary had purchased little for herself before leaving Switzerland, and had "made scarcely anything for the children."123
Thursday 4 August White dashed off a letter to Jenny Ings from the hotel, "amid confusion"124 and someone "rattling on the piano,"125 to inform her that she missed her company after being attached to her over the past months. She expected to meet her "in about four weeks" and expressed her appreciation for her hard work, "laziness or shirking is not your besetting sin", she told her.126
White sailed from Liverpool aboard The City of Rome together with Mary, the two children, Daniel Bourdeau and his son Augustine, and O. A. Olsen127 and his son. Mary and the girls shared White's cabin, and she obtained the necessary nightly ventilation she always required, after Mary slipped the porter a shilling to leave the porthole open.128
During the crossing White's thoughts, for the greater part, were on what she was leaving behind. She had time to reflect and consequently she spent part of her voyage writing letters to the friends and Church leaders she had left to continue with the work in the three Missions, including one written generally to the "Brethren in Europe." She indicated, "I am sorry I could not have done more labor in England," while recognizing the leadership's desire "to see the work make more rapid strides, because we know it can and should."129 She was to write four months later:
After a two years stay in Europe we see no more reason for discouragement in the state of the cause there than at its rise in the different fields in America.130
Now she was speaking from first hand knowledge after two years of visiting, observing, teaching, preaching, and counseling. Her reports to the 1887 General Conference session were those of a missionary from the European Missions.
White arrived in America on Thursday 11 August after a "pleasant and prosperous voyage" that took eight days.131 The ocean had been "as placid as a lake."132 By Wednesday 17 August she was in New Bedford, Massachusetts, and "thankful I can eat tomatoes, green corn, sweet potatoes, bananas, blackberries, huckleberries."133
Interestingly, by the middle of August White was beginning to miss some things she herself had become accustomed to in Europe and now only available in England. She wrote Jenny Ings asking her to obtain "a package of those stockings" that she and the other ladies had used. "I wear them," she wrote, "and they feel so nice." She knew they were obtainable in Liverpool or London and wanted some brought to her in America. She also wanted "two coarse linen sheets" which she knew would not be "dutiable" on entrance to America.134
The General Conference opened Sunday 13 November 1887, and White was present. At this time the Foreign Mission Board was reformulated and pulled together into a stronger organization. She was back home in California by December.
1Details of this tour may be found in White, "Visit to Scandinavia," HS, pp.174-225; Delafield, EGWE, pp.91-132; Crisler, LS, pp.295-296. Detailed information on White's visits to Scandinavia during 1885-1887 can be found in Hans Jorgen Schantz, "Ellen Gould White in Denmark," WES, pp.85-117; Edwin Torkelsen, "Ellen G.White in Norway 1885-1887," WES, pp.149-339; Eric Soderberg, "Ellen G. White in Sweden," WES, pp.118-148; White, Arthur L. EGW, 3:316-329.
2White, "Visit to Scandinavia," HS, p.220.
3W. C. White to Mary White, Letter 28, November 1885.
4White, "Visit to Northern Italy," HS, p.226.
5White to W. C. "Willie" White, Letter 37, 23 November 1885.
6Crisler, LS, p.289.
7Details of this trip may be found in White, "Visit to Northern Italy," HS, pp.226-249; Delafield, EGWE, pp.133-147. Details regarding White's visits in Italy may be found in Guiseppe De Meo, "Ellen G. White in Italy," WES, pp.340-359; White, Arthur L, EGW, 3:330-343 covers winter visits to Italy and her stay in Switzerland 1885-1887.
8Details of White's time spent in Switzerland may be found in Jean R. Zurcher, "Ellen G. White in Switzerland," WES, pp.6-47.
9Delafield, EGWE, pp.148-173.
10See SDAE, art., "Conradi, Louis Richard." This author's elder daughter, Ann-Marie, is presently married to John Timothy Reichert, the great-grandson of Conradi.
11See Louis Richard Conradi, "A Visit to Russia," HS, pp.250-271.
12White, Diary, MS 54, 1886. This MS was a travel outline letter addressed to her son Edson White and his wife, and to her nephew Frank Belden and his wife Hattie.
13Delafield, EGWE, pp.174-180.
15ibid., pp.192-210; Crisler, LS, pp.297-299; White, Arthur L., EGW, pp.344-358 covers this second visit to Scandinavia.
16Delafield, EGWE, pp.211-215.
17White to Brother and Sister Ings, Letter 78, 1886, MS Release #1566 to Rex Riches. See Appendix 4 for the full text of the letter. All facts in the next three pages are from this source unless otherwise stated.
18James White, "The Last Mail," RH, 30 January 1879, p.36.
19Announcement, ST, 29 July 1886, p.464.
20Ings, "Among the Church in Europe," RH, 17 May 1887, p.315.
21White to Bro. Sis. Ings, Letter 7a, 11 August 1886, MS Release #1564 to Rex Riches.
22W. C. White, "The Work in Europe," ST, 22 October 1885, p.634.
23White to Bro. Sis. Ings, Letter 7a, 11 August 1886.
24White, Diary, MS 69, 14,15 September 1886.
25ibid., 16,17 September 1886.
26Crisler, LS, p. 291-294; White, Diary, MS 12, 23 - 25 September 1886; Sermon, "The Privilege of Being a Christian," MS 16, 19 September 1886; Sermon, MS 80, 21 September 1886; Talk, MS 81, 21 September 1886; Talk, MS 82, September 1886; Sermon, MS 83, September 1886; Sermon, MS 84, 26 September 1886.
27White, Diary, MS 69, 18 September 1886.
28White, Sermon, MS 16, "The Privilege of Being a Christian," 19 September 1886.
31White, Talk, MS 80, 21 September 1886; Talk, MS 81, 21 September 1886.
33White, Diary, MS 12, 24 September 1886.
34Wilcox, "General European Council," PT, 21 October 1886, p.160.
35Crisler, LS, p. 294.
36White, Sermon, MS 84, 26 September 1886.
37Wilcox, "General European Council," PT, 21 October 1886, p.160; SDAYB, 1887, pp.92,93.
38SDAYB, 1887, pp.92,93.
40Wilcox, "General European Council," PT, 21 October 1886, p.160; White, Sermon, MS 84, 26 September 1886.
41SDAYB, 1887, p.94,96.
43Wilcox, "General European Council," PT, 21 October 1886, p.160.
44ibid.; SDAYB, 1887, p.98.
46SDAYB, 1887, pp.95,96.
47Wilcox, "General European Council," PT, 21 October 1886, p.160; SDAYB, 1887, pp.96,97.
51SDAYB, 1887, pp.98,99.
52Smith, "General Conference Proceedings," RH, 14 December 1886, p.777.
53Wilcox, "General European Council," PT, 21 October 1886, p.160.
54Smith, "General Conference Proceedings," RH, 30 November 1886, p.762; SDAYB, 1887, p.96.
55"English Mission Report to General Conference," RH, 23 November 1886, p.731.
56SDAYB, 1877, p.97.
58"English Mission Report to General Conference," RH 23 November 1886, p. 731.
59Wilcox, "General European Council," PT 21 October 1886, p.160.
60Lane, "English Mission Report to General Conference," RH, 23 November 1886, pp.730,731.
61Smith, "General Conference Proceedings," RH, 7 December 1886, p. 763.
62ibid., 30 November 1886, p. 744.
63ibid., 7 December 1886, p. 762.
64ibid., 14 December 1886, p. 778.
66"Missionary Work-No.1," RH, 4 January 1887, p.3; "No.2," 11 January 1887, p.23; "No.3," 18 January 1887, p.39; "No.4," 25 January 1887, pp.54,55; "No.5," 1 February 1887, p.70; "No.6," 15 February 1887, pp.102,118,119.
67White, Diary, MS 69, 1 October 1886.
68ibid., 2,3 October 1886.
69ibid., 3 October 1886; Details of White's time in France may be found in Gerard Poublan, "Ellen G. White in France," WES, pp.360-412.
70White, "The Work in Basel, Switzerland," RH, 12 April 1887, p.226.
71See Delafield, EGWE, pp.226-241.
72White, Talk, "Search the Scriptures," MS 43, Thursday 21 October 1886. For details see Delafield, EGWE, pp.236-238.
73White to Haskell, Letter 20, 14 January 1887, MS Release #1567 to Rex Riches. See Appendix 5 for full text.
74Smith, "General Conference Proceedings," RH, 7 December 1886, p. 763. White would answer this request in 1891. See SDAE art., "Australia, Commonwealth Of."
75White to Haskell, Letter 20, 14 January 1887.
77White to Edson and Emma White, Letter 82, 18 April 1887.
79ibid.; see also Delafield, EGWE, pp.275-285.
80See Delafield, EGWE, p.297-301; Arthur White, EGW, 3:367-371 for details of the Fifth European Council in Norway.
81Haskell, "London, England," PT, 16 June 1887, p.361; "From Moss, Norway," PT, 7 July 1887, p.409.
82Haskell, "Camp-meeting and Council in Europe," RH, 19 July 1887, p. 457.
83"Camp-meeting in Norway," PT, 7 July 1887, pp.202,203. The newspaper report of 14 June was reprinted in "Tour to the Camp-Meeting at Moss," ST, 14 July 1887, p.425.
84Crisler, LS, p.300. See Chapter 9 for additional information.
85Durland, "Report of the European Council," PT, 7 July 1887, pp.204,205; RH, 19 July 1887, p.461; ST, 4 August 1887, pp.473,474; SDAYB, 1888, p.75-77. From here on all reports of the Council will be from these sources unless otherwise stated. W. A. Spicer was 22 years of age when he came to Britain to be Secretary to Haskell. For the past six years he had served as callboy at the Battle Creek Sanitariun and as secretary to Dr. J. H. Kellogg. He stayed in Britain until 1892. He would later become a missionary to India and President of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists 1922-1930. See SDAE, art., "Spicer, William Ambrose."
86J. G. Matteson, "Northern Europe," RH, 26 July 1887, p. 474.
87Crisler, LS, pp. 300-302.
88White, Diary, MS 34, 10-20 June 1887; Crisler, LS, p.301.
90N. Clausen, "Organization of a Conference in Norway," PT, 21 July 1887, pp.220,221.
91White, Diary, MS.34, 20 June 1887.
92White, Diary, MS.35, 23-28 June 1887; Delafield, EGWE, pp.305,306.
93White, Diary, MS,36, 28-30 June 1887. It should be noted that the dates of the month do not match the days of the week or the information in this Diary, MS 36, nor in the previous MS 35, from 26 June. Whether this was the fault of White or of a secretary is not known. Corrected dating will appear in footnotes relating to MS 36 from this point. Apart from this Dairy account we have little information of White's third and last visit in England. See also Arthur White, EGW, 3:371-372 for some details.
94ibid., 30 June 1887; White to "Dear Children," Letter 85, 30 June 1887.
95White, Diary, MS 36, 30 June, 1 July 1887.
96ibid., 1 July 1887.
97White to "Dear Children," Letter 35, 30 June 1887.
98MS 36, 2 July 1887.
101ibid., 3 July 1887.
103ibid., 4 July 1887.
104Today Holloway prison is for women and still a major place of incarceration in England.
105White, Diary, MS 36, 5 July 1887.
106White to [Brethren on Your Way to Distant Field of Labor]Dores A. Robinson and Charles L. Boyd, Letter 14, 18 June 1887. See Appendix 6 for full text; White to Boyd, Letter 12, 25 June 1887. See Appendix 7 for full text.
107As it happened, Robinson's stay in Africa would be brief. He returned the next year to Britain, where he labored as superintendent until 1895, at which time he was appointed to begin work in India. In the year 1900 he died of smallpox. See SDAE, art., "Robinson, Dores A." Boyd served in Africa until 1891, when he returned to America to take the presidency of the Tennessee River Conference. He remained in that State until his death in 1898. Mrs Boyd took service for 12 years in Australia as a teacher at Avondale College and Bible instructor. Seventeen years were spent as a Bible instructor in California until her retirement in 1927. See SDAE, art., "Boyd, Maud Sisley."
108Haskell, "A Word from England," RH, 2 August 1887, p.489.
109See Chapter 8.
110White, Diary, MS 36, 6,7 July 1887.
111ibid., 8,9 July 1887.
112ibid., 10 July 1887.
113ibid., 11 July 1887.
114White to Jenny Ings, Letter 66, 17 August 1887, MS Release #1568 to Rex Riches.
115White to Dear Children, Letter 85, 30 June 1887.
116White, Sermon, MS 25, 14 July 1887. The last page of this document is missing.
117White to Ings, Letter 65, 4 August 1887.
118White to W. C. White, Letter 90, 20 July 1887.
119White to Bro. and Sis. Ings, Letter 78, 26 May 1886.
120White to Jenny [Ings], Letter 64, 3 August 1887.
121White to Sis. Ings, Letter 65, 4 August 1887.
123White to Jenny [Ings], Letter 64, 3 August 1887.
124White, ["Mother"] to Jenny Ings, Letter 65, 4 August 1887. MS release #1568 to Rex Riches.
125White to Jenny [Ings], Letter 64, 3 August 1887.
126White ["Mother"] to Jenny Ings, Letter 65, 4 August 1887.
127Olsen was later to become a president of the General Conference and the first president of the British Union Conference in 1901.
128White to Sis. Ings, Letter 66, 17 August 1887.
129White to Brethren in Europe, Letter 15, 6 August 1887.
130White, "Our Mission in Europe," RH, 6 December 1887, p.753.
131White to Haskell, Letter 50, 1 September 1887. See Appendix 10 for full text.
132White to Jenny Ings, Letter 65, 4 August 1887. MS release #1568 to Rex Riches.
133White to Jenny Ings, Letter 66, 17 August 1887. MS release #1568 to Rex Riches.